Course and wales, stitch density in knitting

Courses per inch, wales per inch and stitch density are the very important parameters of a knit fabric and are set before and calculated later very accurately for determining the standard of the knit fabric.Course and wales very important during knitting.

Course and wales

Course and wales in knitting


A course is a horizontal row of loops produced by all the adjacent needles during the same knitting cycle. It is expressed as courses per inch or courses per
centimeter. Fabric is produced by making course order. Number of loops during a course is adequate to the number of needles in operation.

Course length

In weft knitted fabrics a course of loops is composed of a single length of yarn termed
a course length. Weft knitted structures will unrove from the course knitted last
unless it’s secured, by binding-off.


A wale is a vertical column of loops made by the equivalent needle in successive knitting cycles. It is like to warp end during a woven fabric. It is expressed as wales per inch or wales per centimeter. The entire number of wales during a fabric is obtained from the total number of needles in operation. The direction of course and wale in weft knit fabric.

It is possible to transfer the loop well from one when the loop transfer occurs needle. A to a different  B and to recommence knitting with the second needle, during which case more than one needle will have produced inter meshed loops in the same wale.

  • In warp knitting a wale are often produced from an equivalent yarn if the same warp guide laps the same needle at successive knitting cycles.
    • Wales are connected together across the width of the fabric by sinker loops.
    • Wales show most clearly on the technical face and courses on the technical back
    of single needle bed fabric.
 Stitch density

Stitch density refers to the total number of loops in a measured area of fabric and
 not to the length of yarn in a loop (stitch length). It is the total number of needle
loops in a given area. Obtained by counting the number of courses or pattern rows in one inch and the number of wales in one inch, then multiplying the number of courses by the number of wales. Stitch density gives a more accurate measurement than does a linear measurement of only courses or only wales.


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Weft knitting structure

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Warp and weft knitting