Marker making method, Marker efficiency, Constraints of marker making
Marker is meant to a piece of paper , on which all sizes patterns of a garment are drawn so that the required number of garments can be made using the minimum quantity of fabrics ( minimum wastage of fabrics).
Marker width is taken as the minimum fabric width and the length of the marker depends on how many sizes of patterns are used for making the pattern. Some other factors are involved with marker length:
- How many garments will be made with one lay of fabric
- The length of the cutting table.
- Production planning etc.
The marker planner measures his success by the efficiency of the of marker plan created. The expression in percentage of the occupied area by the patterns used in a marker in relation to the total area of a marker is called the marker efficiency. Marker efficiency can be measured by the following formula.
Marker Efficiency = (Area of all patterns pieces in the marker/ Total area of the marker) X 100
The higher marker efficiency, the lower fabric wastage. This means that making a specific number of garments, comparatively less fabric will be required. About 50% of the cost of a garment is spent for fabric purpose. The meaning of 1% increase of marker efficiency is the addition of the cost of the cost of that fabric with the profit.
The factors which are involved with the marker efficiency
- Marker planner
- Size of garments
- Marker length
- Pattern engineering
- Marker making method
- Fabric Characteristics
- Marker width
- Style of garments
Marker efficiency is dependent on experience, honestly, sincerity, effort, trial, and technological knowledge of the marker man. The more markers being made, the more probability to get marker efficiency.
Size of garments:
During marker making, the greater the numbers of pattern sizes are included the more probability to get marker efficiency. But if the sizes are too many then the reverse situation my happen.
Higher the marker length, greater the chances of higher marker efficiency and production of cutting room can be also increased.
Marker efficiency can increased to change pattern design of particular parts of garments or divided into two parts of pattern.
Marker making method
Computerized method, marker efficiency is more than manual method. But more time required. If skilled operator makes a marker the more marker efficiency than computerized.
There are some fabrics which are seen as same from any side, this called Symmetrical fabric. In case of these fabrics, the greater marker efficiency can be achieved during making. But the fabric s which is not symmetrical, that means which is Asymmetrical fabric; there is a chance of getting less marker efficiency.
To more marker width the easier to marker plan, marker efficiency increased.
Style of garments
The larger pattern and less small pattern reduce marker efficiency. The smaller pattern makes efficiency increased. Because, after placing the big sizes patterns, the small patterns are not available for placing at those gaps, so fabric wastages are big
Constraints of marker making
The factors which decrease the marker efficiency are called constraints. The work of the marker planner is subject to a number of constrains.
- The nature of the fabric and the desired result in the finished garments.
- The requirements of quality in cutting.
- The requirements of production planning
- The nature of the fabric and the desired result in finished garments:
- Grain line:
The line on pattern at warp way but the direction of line can be changed in decorative designs. The grain lines should be parallel to each other through 2 degree angle difference may be tolerable. For decorative ladies and babies garments angle between grain lines may be 45 but in normal cases grain lines should be warp way and parallel because of maintaining parallel position.
Grain lines small patterns cannot be set between the gap of larger patterns for which the fabric between the gaps cannot be used and become wastage which would increase wastage and decrease marker efficiency.
If grain lines are not maintained properly then the drape and handle property of garments will be changed which would change the predetermined quality of garments. The tendency of fabric to hang is called drapes. Drapes will be more if fold of the fabric will more.
- Fabric characteristics:
Many fabrics can be turned round and retain the same appearance are called symmetrical. They require no special attention during marker making. Asymmetrical ( ) fabrics are those which are turned and do not retain the same appearance
Examples of such fabrics are pile which is brushed in one direction and which show different reflection of light. The marker should be planned in such a way that it is in accordance with symmetry, asymmetry of the fabric. All the pattern pieces of garments should be along the same direction when laid down on an asymmetrical fabric.
- Style of garments:
If a garment where special designs are must such as mirror image , this means that the right and left sides of garments along the center front line will be looked as same. During fabric spreading and marking special attentions is too given so that after making the garments the desired designs are obtained in each garments.
- Cutting quality:
A freedom is given to the cutting knife during cutting the spreaded fabric through the edge lines of the pattern on the marker. Cutting knife cannot turn the direction of lines accurately so that it requires same allowances which is called cutting allowances for which patterns cannot be set closely on the marker.
So a few distance should be kept during marker making otherwise a portion of pattern can be cut during cutting another pattern lines. Keeping this distance increase fabric wastage which also decrease machine efficiency.
Production planning depends on order of garments. If the order of garments for a same style but for different sizes can be expressed as a small ratio then one marker can provide all the pattern which increases marker efficiency. But the order cannot be expressed as small then different markers are required for different sizes which decreases marker efficiency
For an example of an order of 1500 dozen of ladies dress is given where there will be 600 dozen white, 600 dozen blue, and 300 dozen cream color garments, the ratio of the sizes 15, 16, 17 and 18 will be 2:4:4:2
For above mentioned order, production planning can be done in different ways and markers can also be done in different ways.
Taking the patterns of all sizes as per ratio, a marker can be made.
2 sets for the size 15, 4 sets for size 16, 4 sets for the size 17, 2 sets for the size 18, which means taking total 12 sets of patterns, a marker can be made.
In this case –
- Grater marker efficiency may be achieved but takes much time to make the
- Due to the larger length of marker, there is a possibility of not accommodating the fabric spread or lay in cutting table.
- In addition to that more fabric rolls are required for making fabric lay of certain As there may happen color shade variations among the fabric rolls, the shade variations in garments increase.
- Without this, among the fabric spread, the number of fabric spread, the number of ply in each color becomes less for each color that means the number of bundles increase. For a large r number of bundles, greater handling costs happen.
Two markers can be made for this order. For the first marker 2 sets for the size 15, 2 sets for 16, 2 sets for size 17 that means the marker can be done with six sets of patterns.
In the second marker can be done taking 2 sets for size 16, 2 sets for size 16, 2 sets for size 18 that means the marker can be done with six sets of patterns.
In second system-There are both advantages & disadvantages:
Such as for each marker the length will be almost half of the previous marker. As a result , it is comparatively helpful to do smaller length marker and prom production. The smaller length of marker is suitable for small cutting table.
The possibility of being shade variations of garments is also less.
But in this case there is a chance of attaining less. Therefore, from the above mentioned discussion it is easily understandable that marker making and its efficiency are related with the production planning.