Fabric spreading process in apparel industries

fabric spreading machine

Fabric spreading means the smooth laying out of the fabric in superimposed layers of specific length & width. The cutting maker paper is laid in the top of the fabric layers. The maximum width of the cutting maker constrained by the usable width of the fabric.

During spreading number of the pies should be not more than three hundreds. The shape of the fabrics that attained as per spreading of fabric is called the “Fabric Lay” .The number of lay depends on the thickness of fabric and the height of the knife.

fabric spreading machine

fabric spreading machine

Object of fabric spreading:
  • To place the number of plies of fabric roll according to the length of marker plan accuracy aligned as to the length & width, without tension.
  • To cut garments in bulk & saving in fabric the use of multi garments marker plan & the saving in cutting time of per garments that result from cutting many pies at the same time


  • Alignment of fabric plies ( Basic Requirements)
  • Correct ply tension ( Basic Requirements)
  • Fabric must be flat ( Basic Requirements)
  • Elimination of fabric flaws
  • Correct ply direction & lay stability
  • Elimination of static electricity
  • Easy separation of cut lay into bundles
  • Avoidance of fusion of plies during cutting
  • Avoidance distortion in spread
  • Matching checks or stripes
Alignment of fabric plies (Basic Requirements)

Fabric spread is done as per the length. It is exactly maintained so that every of the material plies is placed flawlessly in the length and width of the marker in laying during spreading of material. Otherwise the fabric of any ply so that you can be placed beyond the measurement of the length or width of the marker may be cut defectively. In order to avoid this mistake, every plies is placed and controlled along the width maintaining the selvedge of at the least one facet within side the equal line. Also sometimes along the width of the material, the centre position of it is placed and controlled in the equal place. In order to ensure the period of every ply alongside the marker, the length of material lay is kept 2cm large than the marker length in every end.

Correct ply tension (Basic Requirements)

The ply tension should be proper. If the tension is low, there will be ridges in the plies & if the tension is too high, the fabric may shrink after cutting & sewing. Spreading if completed in spreading machine, it offers uniform tension. Some fabric such as knitted fabric, or within side the fabric in which there are elastic yarn or textured yarn, those fabric are prone to come to be longer. During spread of these fabrics, special attention is given and fabric is cut 12 to 24 hours after laying , so that fabric can relax to its normal condition by this time.

Fabric must be flat (Basic Requirements)

It should be maintained carefully. Operator must pay attention so that there is no crinkle during fabric spreading. If any crinkle in flat table, the crinkle is eliminated by airflow.

Elimination of fabric flaws

The flaws of fabric must be indicated during spreading & necessary steps to be taken to remove these faults. It is the duty of the operator. Splicing is one of them. If can be done in two ways: one is by giving indication in the marker & other is by overlapping the fabric. Sometime metal tape is attached to indicate the flaw of the fabric. The computer can easily identify the flaws & the length of the computer & the length of splicing can also be measured by this technique

Correct ply direction & lay stability

These two factors must be considered together. They depend on fabric type, pattern shape & spreading equipment that are available. When the pattern pieces have been positioned in a particular direction in the marker plant, it is the essential that the fabric is spreading according the direction.

Symmetrical patterns pieces are placed in the same way up of face. If the fabrics of patterns are asymmetrical, the fabric is spreaded either up or facing down.

Elimination of static electricity

If spreading is done by man made fabrics, static electricity may generate. It may be eliminated by decreasing friction or growing humidity of the room. Earthling facility may be provided with the lay to reduce static electricity generation.

Easy separation of cut lay into bundles

During fabric spreading, differentiation marks among the fabric plies may required due to color or shade variation or any other reason. For making this differentiation, lower priced coloured paper layer is used among the material plies. After slicing of the material, for differentiation among coloured and non-colored in every bundle, the usage of such coloured paper may be very an awful lot helpful. Moreover I case of slippery material, such coloured paper facilitates to maintain the material lay firmly. The coloured paper used for this motive is typically hard surfaced

Avoidance of fusion of plies during cutting

During the fabric cutting with cutting knife, heat is generated due to friction between fabric & Knife. The fabrics in which there are thermoplastic fiber, those fiber smelt due to frictional heat. As a result, the melted matters take the form of polymer bid or grain due to joining together. For avoiding this problem anti-fusion paper is used. There is greasy substance in anti fusion paper s which lubricate the knife during cutting of fabrics

Avoidance distortion in spread

During the removal of fabric lay or during the cutting of the fabric lay with straight knife, there may be folding mark or crinkle mark in fabric plies at bottom lay due to the friction with the base plate of the knife, As a result defective pattern may be made after the cutting of the fabric. Moreover, due to the use of smooth paper there is no possibility of rough face of fabric, caused by friction of the table with the fabric.

Matching checks or stripes

During the time of making of fabric lay through spreading of fabrics, need to keep remark so that if the fabric is take a look at or strip, then one ply of cloth wishes to be positioned on the opposite by matching the checks or stripes properly. In interest of matching the checks or stripes in garments, marker planning also needs to be done by matching the checks and stripes. This matching may be required to be maintained in warp direction, or in weft direction, or both in warp and weft directions.

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