Different types of dyes name and properties

A dye is a coloring material this is used for presenting colour to exclusive materials or changing the colour of something. Dyes have chromophores and auxochromes which are responsible for their colour and substantivity. Dye, substance used to impart colour to textiles, paper, leather, and different substances such that the colouring isn’t readily altered by washing, heat, light, or different elements to which the material is likely to be exposed.In this article i will discuss types of dyes name and propertise.


Types of Dyes:

  • Reactive dyes,
  • Acid dyes,
  • Direct (substantive) dyes,
  • Natural dyes,
  • Basic (cationic) dyes,
  • Synthetic dyes,
  • Disperse dyes,
  • Sulphur dyes,
  • Pigment dyes,
  • Mordant dyes,
  • Vat dyes,
  • Macromolecular dyes,
  • Metallized dyes,
  • Naphthol dyes,
  • Premetallized dyes,
  • Gel dyeing, d
  • Eveloped dyes,
  • Azo dyes,
  • Aniline dyes,
  • Anthraquinone dyes

Reactive Dyes:

Reactive dyes have been very popular for many years in cellulosic fibre dyeing and printing.Reactive dyes are so called because they are only type of dye that has a reactive group. Reactive dyes are mainly used in dyeing of cellulose fibre like cotton or flax, but also wool is dye able with reactive dyes.

Properties of Reactive Dye:

  1. Reactive dyes have very good light-fastness.
  2. Reactive dye is a water soluble dye..
  3. Reactive dyes have good wash-fastness; their wash-fastness rating is about 4-5
  4. It is used in alkali medium.
  5. Reactive dye have better substantively

Direct Dye:

Direct dye can be applied directly to cotton or other cellulosic fabrics such as rayon, silk, and wool. Applied in a neutral or alkaline bath of hot water. These dyes are the important single class for cotton in the sense that simple to use. The light fastness of dyeing with direct dyes on cellulosic fibers varies from poor to fairly good, although some copper complex direct dyes have very good excellent  fastness.

Types of Direct Dye:

SDC class A direct dyes:

These  are  self-leveling  dyes  with  good  migration  even  in  the  presence  of  salt. Their substantively  is  lower  and  hence  usually  requires  considerable  amounts of electrolytes for good exhaustion.

SDC class B direct dyes:

These dyes are shock-sensitive dyes and hence salt-controllable with poor level-ling characteristics. They have low to moderate substantively in the absence of salt but exhaust well on the addition of small amounts of salt to the dye bath. Initial addition of salt is not necessary.


SDC class C direct dyes:

Class C direct dyes exhibit poor migration and are very salt-sensitive dyes. Subsequent additions of limited amount of salt and leveling agents if required. Majority of these dyes are often polyazo dyes with few sulphonate groups and of high substantively to cellulose.

Properties of Direct Dye:

  1. Direct Dye light Fastness is good.
  2. Direct dyes are relatively inexpensive.
  3. It has a suitable color.

Acid Dye:

An acid dye is a dye this is generally applied to a fabric at low pH.  Acid dyes are anionic. They form salts with catidonic groups in cells and tissues, in particular the ionized amino groups of proteins.The cytoplasm is usually acidophilic. The most common fiber to be dyed with acid dyes. Acid dyes will dye fibres with cationic sites such as wool, silk and nylon. Protein fibres contain amino and carboxyl groups

Properties of acid dye:

  • Acid dye soluble in water
  • Acid dye dyeing process carried out in acid medium
  • Acid dye color fastness property is good

Sulphur Dye:

Sulphur linkages are the integral part of chromophore in sulphur dyes. These dyes are non-ionic and insoluble in water. These  dyes are particularly  used for dyeing cotton in medium or heavy shades, primariy frequently due to the fact they acquire mild rapid and wash rapid colorations at low cost.    

Properties of sulphur dye:

  • Sulphur dye insoluble in water
  • Sulphur dye is cheap rate and easy to apply
  • These dye have good  wash fastness of around 4–5
  • Sulphur dye are available in paste or powder from